Always keep original maps so that as built plans are available. Update maps whenever new construction or rehabilitation is done in a particular area. Having accurate maps can save time and money when crucial decisions and actions have to be made and executed. The entire collection system should be mapped and all manholes and pipelines should be assigned identification numbers. Mapping should be done by hard copy and as computer data in a Geographic Information System (GIS) format. Below are examples of the type of information that should be included in the mapping of the collection system
Map of the Collection System:
The map must show the locations of all lines and pump stations. Mapping parameters should include the following:
a) Line size
b) Slope (if available)
c) Pipe material
d) Approximate age
e) Flow direction
f) Manhole information
iv) type (number of inlets, etc.)
g) Pump station information
iii) pump type (model) and capacity
iv) number of pumps at station
v) back-up power source
h) Location of all tributary collection system connections
i) Number of active service taps
GIS is geographical and geospatial information about places on the earth’s surface. It gives knowledge of what is where and when it was put there. There are three S’s associated with GIS.
Systems- the technology
Science – concepts and theory
Studies – the societal context
Software systems with the capability for input, storage, manipulation and output of geographic data allow real world locations to be digitally represented and stored so that it can be presented in a map form. This data can also be manipulated to address specific problems. GIS systems usually contain two types of data, spatial and attribute data. Spatial data tells the where, the specific location and is stored in a shape file. Attribute data tells what, how much and when. It gives specific characteristics at that location. This data can be natural or human created and is usually stored as table data. These data types are usually joined in order to display it for analytical purposes.
Once the data is input it can be queried. This allows you to look for specific details or attributes. The data is stored in a database, and can be used for analysis, comparison, reporting, etc. Utilities have started taking advantage of this technology. The data collection provides a way to convert paper maps, AutoCAD files new data collected in the field and all of the information that employees have stored in their heads that has never been written down. Analyzing this data allows viewers to visualize, interpret, question and understand relationships patterns and trends in the data. Once the system is mapped, any attributes, parameters, infrastructure, appurtenances and other valuable things in the system can be added and most any vital information associated with it. It can be evaluated in the form of maps, reports and charts. This data can also be seen and share with operators, administrators, billing personnel as well as others that the information may benefit. This type of information can also be shared with public safety, planning and street departments. GIS also contains tools that can help with budgeting, planning, and managing your collection and distribution system.